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Version 1.0 was never publicly released because of serious security flaws in the protocol; version 2.0, released in February 1995, contained a number of security flaws which necessitated the design of version 3.0.
Released in 1996, SSL version 3.0 represented a complete redesign of the protocol produced by Paul Kocher working with Netscape engineers Phil Karlton and Alan Freier, with a reference implementation by Christopher Allen and Tim Dierks of Consensus Development. The 1996 draft of SSL 3.0 was published by IETF as a historical document in RFC 6101.
It serves encryption to higher layers, which is normally the function of the presentation layer.
However, applications generally use TLS as if it were a transport layer, Early research efforts towards transport layer security included the Secure Network Programming (SNP) application programming interface (API), which in 1993 explored the approach of having a secure transport layer API closely resembling Berkeley sockets, to facilitate retrofitting pre-existing network applications with security measures.
Several versions of the protocols find widespread use in applications such as web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and Voice over IP (Vo IP).
In 2014, SSL 3.0 was found to be vulnerable to the POODLE attack that affects all block ciphers in SSL; and RC4, the only non-block cipher supported by SSL 3.0, is also feasibly broken as used in SSL 3.0.
All TLS versions were further refined in RFC 6176 in March 2011, removing their backward compatibility with SSL such that TLS sessions never negotiate the use of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) version 2.0.
As of July 2017 A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate, and indicates certain expected usages of that key.
The Transport Layer Security protocol aims primarily to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating computer applications.
In addition to the properties above, careful configuration of TLS can provide additional privacy-related properties such as forward secrecy, ensuring that any future disclosure of encryption keys cannot be used to decrypt any TLS communications recorded in the past.